Logo is an educational programming language, designed in 1967 by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon. “Logo” is not an acronym. It was derived from the Greek logos meaning word or “thought” by Feurzeig, to distinguish itself from other programming languages that were primarily numbers, not graphics or logic, oriented.

A general-purpose language, Logo is widely known for its use of turtle graphics, in which commands for movement and drawing produced line graphics either on screen or with a small robot called a turtle. The language was conceived to teach concepts of programming related to Lisp and only later to enable what Papert called “body-syntonic reasoning”, where students could understand, predict and reason about the turtle’s motion by imagining what they would do if they were the turtle. There are substantial differences among the many dialects of Logo, and the situation is confused by the regular appearance of turtle-graphics programs that call themselves Logo.

Logo is a multi-paradigm adaptation and dialect of Lisp, a functional programming language. There is no standard Logo, but UCBLogo has the best facilities for handling lists, files, I/O, and recursion in scripts, and can be used to teach all computer science concepts, as UC Berkeley lecturer Brian Harvey did in his Computer Science Logo Style trilogy.

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